First, if it isn’t already too late, use a glass and put enough water in the dishwasher to fill the sump up until you can see the water level rise with each glass full of water you add. Hopefully, you didn’t let it run very long making all that racket.
Now try to run it and see if the noise goes away.
If its already too late, the bottom seal will have dried out and will leak.
Another possibility is that there is something down in the sump pump which is caught in the impeller blades. Try the water first.